- 1 How to build a beautiful and durable stone fence with their hands on all the rules
- 1.1 Calculations and preparatory work
- 1.2 Construction of a reinforced strip foundation
- 1.3 Construction of stone supporting pillars
- 1.4 Features of the construction of a fence made of artificial stone
- 1.5 Video: Building a stone fence with his hands
- 2 Fences made of stone with their hands: the choice of material, manual
- 3 How to make a stone fence with his hands
How to build a beautiful and durable stone fence with their hands on all the rules
Stone Fence - fence embodiment advantageously characterized from other unsurpassed strength and durability. But only one prominent utilitarian qualities of the list of benefits does not exhaust - built of skilfully selected boulders he has an extraordinary beautiful invoice, perfectly combined with any landscape. The only drawback is the high cost of fencing of their erection, but this defect can be easily removed - to take, and to build a stone fence with their hands.
Calculations and preparatory work
Construction fence of stone begin to clarify the boundaries of their own land. Having ascertained the place of passage of boundary lines, draw a fence plan, and then decide what type of stone to use. An estimate of future expenses, purchase the necessary supplies, incidentally obzavedites tools are required, and only then proceed to the construction work.
Before you build a stone fence with their hands, do not be lazy to clarify the boundaries of individual households - perhaps they are not in the place where you used to think. Capturing its fence of the neighboring allotment, you will find yourself in a very awkward position, since the stone fence - a monolithic structure, and move it when the error is found out, you will not be able to. In order to prevent the occurrence of similar situations, invite surveyors and ask them to carry out surveying sites.
Specifying the boundaries of personal territory, measure the length of all sides and draw a sketch of the future plant. To determine the desired height of the fence (usually it is 2-2.2 m), then mark the location of the target location and the gate, and then calculate the number of support pillars. The number of poles is calculated from the recommended length of 2.5-3.2 m spans.
The choice of stone for the construction of the fence
In the modern landscape design, various kinds of raw natural stone, most of which are quite suitable for the erection of fences of all kinds.
The most commonly used for the construction of fences:
- Cobblestone (aka Savage-pebble or boulder) - a very durable stone steel-gray, is essentially a rounded fragments of basalt or granite;
- dolomite - a yellowish-white or light gray, flat sharp-edged stone that looks more like a marble;
- limestone (coquina) - a soft, well-treatable light and easy stuff, the only downside of which is the high hygroscopicity;
- Sandstone - a durable, waterproof and frost-layered stone that has long been used for the construction of fences;
- bottles (otherwise dray stone) - irregularly shaped pieces of sandstone, limestone or granite normally used for arrangement of foundations.
If you are a beginner bricklayer, construction of a stone wall with his hands better to choose a plate sandstone hewn limestone. Having a relatively regular shape such materials are fairly easy to fit into neat rows, so with them is easy and convenient to operate. However, in fairness, it should be noted that the truly original design protections are obtained only from the angular and hilly rubble or rubble.
Preparation of consumables and instruments
Bought or independently to prepare the right amount of rock, get the following construction materials:
- cement M300 or M400;
- rubble middle fraction;
- Sand with a particle size of 0,15-5 mm;
- Reinforcing rods with a diameter of 8-12 mm;
- thick steel pipe length 3.5-4 m;
- Half board formwork fabrication;
- decorative elements - clay tiles, lanterns, forged tops of pillars, peaks or lattice.
Pick up supplies, get rental mixer and welding machine and prepare the necessary tools and accessories, namely:
- wooden pegs;
- 5-6 skeins construction cord;
- spirit level and a plumb;
- handsaw for wood and metal;
- bayonet and shovel;
- wire brush;
- several large buckets.
Construction of a reinforced strip foundation
After finishing the preparation of all necessary, proceed with the excavation and to start will clear the construction site of debris and plants. After completing the cleaning, level the ground at the desired location, and move the fence plan for the area.
Required preparatory work
Before you build a stone fence with their hands:
- Mark the outer corners of the future fence driven into the ground with long sticks.
- Consistently connect them taut cord near the ground.
- Fixing thereby the outer limits, determine the installation site supporting pillars and mark their pegs.
Stone fence - design heavy, prone to distortions and subsidence. The best option for such a base massive structure is reinforced continuous strip foundation with a width of 15-20 cm greater than the thickness of the fence.
In order stone fence is not destroyed by the action of surface water on the basis of his erect overlooking the surface of the soil in the form of a powerful 15-cm cap.
Excavation and construction of the formwork
Strictly follow the order of execution of earthworks:
- All along the border designated a fence, inside perimeter remove turf strip width 50-70 cm.
- In accordance with the intended contours dig narrow trenches 80-cm depth.
- In the field of establishing fence posts further bury the ditch by 40 cm.
- The bottom of the pit, and carefully align the pole pits and pour a layer of sand pyatisantimetrovym.
- Sand bed thoroughly seal the hand-rammer.
The construction of the formwork and reinforcement frame in the following sequence:
- Of chopped sized boards knock formwork panels 1.10 m in height and set them against the sides of the trench. For fixing the shuttering parts every meter mount their vertical supports and diagonal struts prop.
- Boil reinforcing lattice meshes with a size of 15 x 15 cm steel rods.
- Lower the reinforcing mesh at the bottom of the pit and fasten it at a height of 5 cm above the sand.
- The second grating set 20 cm below the soil surface.
- For fixing the reinforcing mesh at the desired level using steel rods, driven into the bottom of the trench in two parallel rows on the steps of 50 cm.
- In the center strut cross section in upright position, set the steel pipe.
Preparation of the solution and concreting of foundation
The mixer of cement, water, sand, gravel and plasticizer prepare standard heavy concrete and fill it in the shuttering.
Weight concrete seal the vibrator (or a spade), flatten the surface of the solution and a thick cover it with plastic wrap to prevent premature evaporation. The heat can be watered concrete cold water.
When the concrete will acquire the final hardness, remove the formwork, but the masonry of the fence until the start - to fully "mature" and the curing solution is required one month.
Construction of stone supporting pillars
The supporting pillars are parallelepipeds section 300 to 300 or 400 to 400 mm and a height of 2.3-2.5 m. Spread such stone rack by the sliding formwork. To secure the support spans equipped with steel mortgages.
Before starting to lay out the pillars for a stone fence with their hands, to equip them with steel mortgages. For this cut pieces of reinforcement rods 60-70 cm long and weld them to the metal studs. Stretches rods orient parallel to the base and attach them one above the other in increments of 30-50 cm.
Stages of construction of stone pillars:
- In accordance with the selected dimensions of formwork boards Construct for post - low (30-40 cm) square box without bottom and lid.
- Set the formwork on the foundation so that the vertical steel base support was located exactly in the center of the box.
- Prepare a solution of fairly thick seeded three parts sand to one part cement. For a firm connection of boulders add the mixture ¼ part PVA glue. If you want to get in the end seams in a contrasting color, type in a solution of dry pigment.
- As closely as possible, flat faces outward, lay inside formwork initial number of stones. Voids between hammer solution.
- By filling stones first duct, the second set on top of it is the same, and continue laying.
- After one day, remove the lower row of boards, set it on the second tier and is also filled with stones and cement.
- Proceed in this order and then - gradually moving the box up, output pole to the desired height.
- Detected after removal of the formwork gap between the stones carefully seal the solution.
The most important stage - the construction of stone spans. The sequence here is as follows:
- Sort the stones in shape and size. If necessary, repel the very prominent face on the smooth cobbles make incisions, the largest boulders are split into several parts.
- Between adjacent pillars, near the base, pull the two rows of the cord, which will limit the outer and inner walls of the plane.
- Apply the solution on the ground floor and in one go (to the cement did not have time to grab) Make this your flight number.
- First lay out a mile - rows of stones along the outer edge and the inner wall, then fill in the gap between them. Cobblestones try to stack up the flat part, fills the gaps therebetween solution.
- Twenty-four hours after the initial layer hardens the stones, lift up the twine and lay the next row, do not forget from time to time to make dressings.
- When the fence reaches the level of the first mortgage, welded to a thin reinforcing mesh and continue laying.
- In doing so, display the fence to the desired height. In operation, the timber wall thickness monitor U-shaped pattern while their verticality - pull cord plumb.
- To picturesque invoice irregular masonry was better noticeable after 4 hours after the construction of each floor, embroidered with the joints between the stones or narrow scraper shaped trowel.
Ready fence wire brush of the brush cement slurry spray dried, then wash it with 30 percent solution of hydrochloric kisloty.Verhushki support post cover decorative waterproof caps.
decorate fence lanterns, curly wood balusters or forged elements, if desired.
Features of the construction of a fence made of artificial stone
Artificial stone costs several times less than any positive integer. Produce it from the concrete, which with the help of dyes and special moldov give color, shape and texture of wild species. Artificial stone is very durable, but it is not necessary to use it in areas with shallow groundwater table, as well as at locations near busy highways.
fence construction technology of artificial stone does not differ from the order of the construction of natural stone walls. The only difference between them is the possibility of using ready-made supporting pillars and lightweight way clutch, which is more reminiscent of the classic "brick" method.
Video: Building a stone fence with his hands
Now that you know how to make a fence made of stone with their hands, and were able to ensure that the construction of the stone wall - a process long, troublesome and tedious. But the result of this construction pays off handsomely all spent money, time and energy. If personal experience is not enough - entrust the job to professionals.
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Fences made of stone with their hands: the choice of material, manual
Fences made of stone, used by man since time immemorial. Currently, natural, natural materials, including stone, at the peak of popularity. A huge variety of natural stone often leads to confusion layman. Therefore important to choose and make the right choice of a particular type of stone suitable for the erection of the fence, conceived design.
The choice of materials (comparison chart)
- a fraction of 105-300 mm - 2500 rubles / m3;
- cobblestone for gabions -70-130 mm - 300 rubles / m3.
No less popular building material for stone walls is an artificial stone. Its cost is much less than the cost of natural, natural stone.
A fence made of limestone
Before the construction of a stone wall with their hands must be to determine the exact location of it, draw a diagram of the construction, foundation plan, and also to make rough calculations of the required volume of building materials.
If land and home ownership are in close proximity to its neighbors, it is necessary to seek written consent for the construction of their buildings. To avoid disputes and boundary disputes, should prepare and issue documents for the construction of technical inventory bureau. These activities will take the construction of the fence without complications and problems.
Preparatory stages of the construction of a fence made of natural stone can also be considered:
- land clearing debris of all kinds and layout (alignment);
- layout work of foundations in line with the schemes and drawings. marking Application (fence line, place the gate, gates) on the ground carried out using cords fastened to stakes;
- purchase of building materials - stone, sand, cement, reinforcement;
- purchase a necessary tool - welding machine, shovels, cooking tank mortar or small concrete mixer.
The next step for the construction of a stone wall arrangement of the foundation.
A fence made of sandstone
Digging trenches for the foundation is made in accordance with the generated markup. Given that the stone is quite heavy and sturdy construction material, the foundation should easily withstand the load properly, ensuring the reliability and durability of structures.
Fences are constructed of stone material exclusively on the belt foundation based on w / w of blocks or bricks. At the stage of the foundation of everything you need to adhere to the following requirements and regulations:
- prepared foundation width must be greater than the thickness of the fence by 15.0 cm deep trench is dug to 80.0 cm If the fence is erected to a height of 2 meters, the trench depth is increased to 10.0 cm per meter fence.;
- first thing performed sand airbag not less than 50.0 mm which is poured water and compacted;
- then produce a laying w / w units, using a solution of the additive and a connecting reinforcement from 30.0 to 40.0 mm in diameter;
- then mounted in a groove-reinforced skeleton around which the settling of formwork edging board, towering above the ground approximately 20,0-30,0 cm, and the whole structure is filled with a solution;
- dismantling formwork produced in a few weeks (3-4 weeks) after the final hardening of the cement;
- openings of doors and gates need to install the supporting pillars, so the load-bearing parts dig in and poured reinforced concrete solution.
A fence made of limestone
Since it is necessary to build at the same time all the pillars in order to accelerate the construction work. In building stone floating fencing widely used shape (formwork). For this it is necessary to produce the required number of screws sectional formwork boards and about 150 mm height. Internal parameters which correspond to the dimensions of the foundation. For one column requires 2 pieces of collapsible shuttering forms.
After fabrication of frameworks, should act according to the following algorithm:
- and mounted formwork is laid initial layer of stone. They are placed so that they are the most closely fit with the collapsible form and to each other;
- produce more dense solution filling all cracks and voids;
- then attached the following formwork screws and filled with stones and the solution is similar.
After a day or two of the grassroots demountable forms can be removed and begin construction of the subsequent layers. Void discovered after the dismantling of the formwork, you must fill out a solution immediately. In places where the lag should be mount to release metal corners, which are welded to the pipes.
Shaped pillars and structures must be protected from atmospheric precipitation. Impeccable embodiment is a device of plastic or metal caps.
A fence made of granite
Walling fences begins with the application on the base label. Spans stone fences have fulfilled posts on 100.0 mm, ie, the displacement of the walls inside by 50.0 mm on the outside and the inside. Along the edges of the wall with the help of level produce a symmetrical installation of stones. The optimum size of the stone walls for laying - up to 25.0 cm.
By stretched between thread sections are oriented in the subsequent masonry wall. For convenience of operation and structural strength stones recommended to lay flat side upwards, carefully filling cracks and voids between the cement-sand mortar.
The rows of masonry walls is strongly recommended to perform a ligation. For the top row of the passage of the stone fence is chosen the same size. Such selection allows the upper part of the fence build smooth.
A fence made of cobblestone
surface and grouting treatment is the final process for the construction of fences, natural and artificial stone.
Seams masonry embroider three ways: deep and shallow convex. A first embodiment enlarges the volume of the masonry.
- Scraper - a strip of metal (4 mm x 150 mm x 2.5 mm), the end of which is located a projection ( "tooth") measuring 10.0 mm by 20.0 m;
- flat groomers and brush with metal bristles;
- pieces of cloth and foam rubber.
Incrementally committing deep grouting looks like this:
- trimming stones and seams with a wire brush;
- creating scraper neat, rectangular recesses to 20.0 mm;
- cleaning seams and stones foam.
If you ignore the grouting, the visual appeal of the stone fence is much worse.
Home decoration natural stone - texture and color. Therefore, constructed from natural stone fences, self-contained and does not require the application of decorative parts to improve appearance. However, if desired, the top of the support pillars can be equipped with waterproof ornate designs - caps with peaks.
Often monumental stone fences decorate openwork forging, various lamps, and "live" decorative elements - creepers -lianami (grape, rose).
Fabrics deaf fence can be revived with the help of glass mosaic panels made of plastic bottles and used CDs. Using these or other decorative details depend on the preferences and wishes of the owners of land on which are built stone fences.
Fences made of stone have many positive qualities, but despite this, there are several drawbacks:
- erection of a fence made of stone - rather long, laborious construction procedure;
- for the construction of such facilities is required foundation;
- the high cost of some natural stone materials.
Building stone fences significantly more expensive than the barrier of wood or metal. Construction of the foundation, the cost of natural materials, transport costs, payment of possible additional workforce will require considerable investment funds. Reduce the financial costs can be due to the construction work on its own.
Currently, to receive master classes (video tutorials) on the construction of stone structures, including fences, is not difficult, it is enough to go to the "YouTube" and use the search engine to select the appropriate clip. EXAMPLE fence of limestone with deep sutures:
Below is a series of photos, which you can see the different versions of the fence made of stone:
"Mosaic" stone fence.
Stone wall of rubble can not be any mechanical, chemical and weather resistance.
An interesting embodiment of stone fence in the grid.
Fence made of stone, decorated forging.
Fences made of sandstone generally common and enjoy the same success.
Not less popular among homeowners are combined fences.
The video below shows how to correctly laid rubble stone. Explains the features of the angle bookmark.
How to make a stone fence with his hands
Before you make a stone wall, read this material carefully. We offer all the options of fencing and give information concerning the foundation, masonry fences and installation of designs. Begin to make the stone fence with their hands should be to install the correct type of foundation. Stone-guard has a large physical mass, so to fix its position sufficiently massive base is needed.
Stone fences, perhaps, the most ancient among those that used a person to protect their homes. They come in several varieties.
"Wild" fence masonry - it constructed of stones of all sizes and configurations of irregular angular shape. To obtain a more or less straight vertical surfaces on the front and rear of the enclosure, the work is performed from the inner and outer walls of the lines, filling the central part and unnecessary pieces chipped stone.
If the starting material is large enough sampling of stone masonry made pustoshovku leaving seams depth of 2-5 cm. This gives the railing a special charm and natural appearance.
If lumps too small, they are placed under the panel lines, completely filling seams and processing special tool - bark. For "wild" masonry very well suited these types of stones: sandstone, dolomite, shale, and some types of bottles.
Tesovo masonry stone wall made of stones angular previously hewn to a more or less rectangular shape. The better treatment, the smoother joints and masonry itself. However, increasingly used rough treatment, giving the fence a natural look. The flat front surface and right angles of the stones, the more such a clutch lining resembles a conventional tile.
Stone fences acquire their own individual style and exterior design due to the large choice of types of masonry materials. Some of the most popular are presented below.
A flat horizontal masonry. Form of layered rocks or stones, cobblestones lozenges which are laid in rows in a horizontal position.
Flat vertical masonry. Made of the same types of stones that a flat horizontal masonry, but in a vertical position. This method is used very rarely, mostly in combination fences to fill the voids. Laying begin only after the set or lined with support legs.
Butovannaya masonry. Is made approximately the same manner as butovannye fence. The starting material is rounded stones that during pouring is set up against the side walls of the formwork.
facing masonry. This type of masonry is usually referred to as finishing. In this case, the flat stones fixed thickness approximately equal to a previously prepared foundation area, the wall or other surface. To the front of the masonry turned out more or less flat, first set the thickest slabs, and then align them the rest of the masonry, not forgetting to adjust the horizontal or vertical.
Regardless of the type of masonry, fencing construction includes a foundation stone fence and the support pillars. It is their strength and quality determine the durability and aesthetics of the structure as a whole.
Stone fences are heavy and insufficiently porous stones themselves, significantly degrades adhesion to the solution. That is why the connection between the elements is much weaker than that between the bricks. On weak, sandy soils and wetlands, as well as in places with frequent manifestations of such protections is not necessary to construct seismic activity.
Ready zalvka formwork and reinforced foundation in the photo.
The foundation must be solid and stable to uneven subsidence and displacement on the horizontal and vertical axes. To do this, proceed as follows. First, dig a trench width of about 50 cm depth of soil freezing (typically 60-80 cm). And if the fence system includes a gate and a gate, and the trench is carried out under them, too. Then prepare a space for pouring "glasses", or, as they are called, "shoes." For this arrangement of struts place dig transverse grooves with the same configuration as that of the trench. Grooves performed perpendicular to the axis of the fence releases by 60 cm so that the intersection of the axis of the trench and the grooves were in the center section of the racks. In this place stands deepened by 40 cm. As a result, at the point of installation must be formed with a cross recessed "tail".
Masonry pillars for fences is carried out simultaneously with the pouring of the foundation. Typically, this operation includes setting shuttering, reinforcement and casting concrete. The distance between the "cups" leave in the range of 2-5 meters. Depending on the pitch "glasses" can be filled for each rack or through one.
Upon completion of excavation work to begin reinforcement. Optimal - square frame with sides of 30-40 cm, the corners of which passes armature rippled section not less than 12 mm, the wire rod through belted 40-60 cm from armature constructing skeleton which pave the central part and the trench grooves and mounted vertically. at the place of location of the racks. The points of intersection necessarily tie up with each other.
The next step is set formwork height of 10-30 cm and more. In this case, try to mount it so that a time and pour the foundation, and "glasses", leaving issues of fittings Rack. For the side formwork issues are not set, the fill is performed only by the level of the ground. Similarly poured trench extending under the gate and gate.
Next proceed directly to the laying of the concrete mortar. His carefully vibrated, compacted and tamped by any available means to prevent the occurrence of voids in the foundation structure and "glasses".
After 5-6 hours, the formwork is dismantled and left to fill for 2-3 weeks. If the weather is too hot (+30 ° C and above) or rainy, it is desirable to spread over thick tarpaulin and laterally lean against the formwork wall.
In the construction of stone walls, some commit a blunder and not fully use functions pillars-pillars, considering them only decorative elements. While it is poles contribute to the preservation of structural integrity: they securely hold the stone spans and protect them from cracks, distortions and destruction.
When the device of stone fences, special attention should be paid to quality bonding edge flown column. There are several options.
With ligation. This installation of fences with his own hands is generally used for masonry stones carried from angular shape. The first and second stones laid end to end on both sides of the release valves for racks. Then ligation is performed to form first and second rows of racks and enclosures first row. Rack select the best stones are more or less regular shape about the same size. Average quality stones of various sizes are used to form the enclosure walls, and small chunks, chips and pieces - to fill the voids in the rack and the wall.
Building stone fences
Building stone fences with the release of the mortgage is recommended for all types of masonry, except for the facing.
Pre-frame to a reinforced strut fittings welded pieces so that they are parallel to the foundation line and extends beyond the rack. Step selected based on the size of the stones, if their height 10-15 cm - 30 cm, if more than 15-20 cm - not less than 50 cm.
Vykladyvanii rows when the fence height will reach welded mortgage last laid out a series of aligned horizontally, using suitable stones of different sizes. Then, the mounting grid or other armirovochnuyu piece is welded to the mortgage and continue laying.
Consider the question of how to build a stone fence with pouring of concrete. This method is desirably employed in the masonry, where the stones rounded shape are used. Laying produce from across the fence line. First, lay out three or four rows of stones, exposing the edge spans up against the armature bar. Then, in the racks locations mounted C-shaped formwork where the concrete is poured. After 2-3 hours, the formwork is removed, the solution is left on the day that he finally grasped, and continue to build the fence as usual.
To get a quality masonry, the following guidelines.
How to make a stone wall and wild stone masonry on video
You can build a beautiful, durable and inexpensive fence made of stone. Rinse thoroughly in running water stones and places of contact with a solution of pre-treat the adhesive latex-based, albumin or any other used for bonding ceramic tiles.
Before you make a stone wall, make incisions on the rocks with a smooth surface prior to fluff them with glue and install. You can even chop off a piece of the place of contact with the solution.
For reliable connection stones prepare a solution of one part cement, three parts sand millet and 1/4 portion of any water-dispersion type adhesive PVA.
To ennoble the appearance of masonry joints under zatoniruyte coloring stones. To do this, add the dye solution or touch up the joints after they are completely dry.
Further detail is shown rough stone masonry to video: