- 1 How to make the floor in the bath on screw piles - sequence of the examples
- 2 floor apparatus in the bath for screw piles
- 3 Bath on stilts with their hands
How to make the floor in the bath on screw piles - sequence of the examples
When planning the construction of a bath, everyone wants that lasts as long as possible, and this can be achieved only by building a solid foundation. One of the most popular and affordable type of foundation is the spiral - about it and we'll discuss in this article. To this material is also attached photos and videos illustrating the main stages of the organization of the screw-pile foundation.
The invention belongs to the pile foundation designer Alexander Mitchell, who was the first to test this technology in the construction of the lighthouse in the Delaware Bay as early as 1850. The method consists in the fact that the piles are not driven into the ground strata, and are screwed through giving one end of the column pointed shape. This method proved to be not only effective, but also passed the test of time, it is still used.
Particularly active pile foundations began to use the military to place rolling stock. This is extremely relevant technology and in remote areas. In particular in the northern regions almost abandoned pier foundation and the method of driving poles, replacing them with screw piles.
If we talk about the Russian Federation, in some areas, where the climate is particularly hard, screw piles used as the most appropriate type of foundation for the residential and industrial construction.
If you want to build on the site a bath of laminated veneer lumber or log house the helical pile foundation fits perfectly.
In those areas where Nonchernozem traditional soils columnar and strip foundations overshadowed (read as: "How to make a foundation for a bath columnar - variety of construction options"). Instead, they are widely used screw piles, as they are not only more reliable, but also much more accessible in financial terms for a wide range of customers.
One of the features of screw piles is the lack of need for additional interfacing beam or a channel. As the binder grillage is lower crown carcass.
Many people prefer to build a bath on stilts with their own hands, picking at the same countryside near water or on hillsides. Because in places the soils are generally alluvial and sedimentary, and sometimes peat, using piles in such cases is more than justified.
construction technology screw-pile foundation
Mounted on screw piles foundation primarily affects on the type of floors in the next bath. To properly calculate the amount of building materials that would be needed for the construction of high-quality and durable foundation, it is advisable to trust the experts.
Through calculations must take into account the following factors:
- soil composition and quality;
- the average level of snow cover in the winter;
- depth of soil freezing;
- the level of flood water from melted snow;
- Rose of Wind;
- weight of the finished structure with a full finish.
Start of construction of the carcass baths on screw piles only after the preliminary layout placing towers at the site. At appropriate points pierce small pegs and pull the string by which all other measurements are made. Twist pile can be either through special equipment, or jointly by several people. It is worth remembering that the position of the pile should be strictly perpendicular to the horizon line. See also: "Select the foundation under the bath - a better experience."
Producing a screwing position of the pile verify with magnetic level every 4 complete turns. Similarly produce assembling all supports, controlling that they correspond to the same position on the magnetic performance level.
If during the twisting of the pile formed bias them aligned on a rotary leveling without pulling. You can not twist the already driven into the ground dowel, otherwise, over time, bath starts to shrink because of the looseness of the soil. Screwed support post must be clearance of at least 20 cm. Subsequently, this piece can be cut off grinder.
As the mounting support piles and soil therebetween are formed gaps which concrete is poured to fill the solution and the pieces of rebar. This approach will make the foundation for framing bath screw piles on their hands more strong and durable, protects metal parts from rusting.
After installing the supports perform measurements of the location and proceed to weld end walls. On seams applied anticorrosive composition.
If you do not want to use metal, bridges can serve as a timber, which is attached by bolts. However, the wood to be treated with special antiseptic.
To supporting pillars had a more presentable appearance and to protect them from dirt and moisture caused by the melting of snow or flooding with water from the reservoir, should generate additional their finishing. Different facing materials to help protect the floor in the bath on screw piles, as well as to focus on the appearance of the building itself.
Since most of the damage may be caused by snow and streams of dirty water in the off-season, special attention should be paid to waterproofing materials for quality coatings.
Note that a very strong and completely waterproof is a natural and artificial stone.
Investigate in detail each of the types of flooring, it makes sense, when it comes to residential or public buildings. However, the floor in the bath unit on screw piles possible even with minimal knowledge and skills.
If provided sufficiently high grillage, the suspension is not flowing into the wooden floor framing on stilts bath is the best way out. An additional layer of insulation will allow the use of a sauna at any time of the year, otherwise, such a floor in the winter will be very cold.
Pile Foundation allows you to protect the lower part of the deck from any external influences, such as rainfall, flooding or simply humidity. But inside a floor continuously subjected to extremes of temperature and humidity, after condensation in the steam, and water is supplied in pomyvochnaya.
Therefore, one of the very important issues in the construction of a bath on screw piles - how to make the drain. It looks like a small trapik through which the water flows directly into the septic tank or central sewer (also read: "How to make septic tank for a bath or choose a ready").
Note that in the bath to drain screw piles should be provided not only in the heart, but also in the steam room, where the water appears after washing shelves and floors.
Pouring the floor in the bath on stilts is the most simple and not costly to implement. For his organization will need to have the cap height is not less than 50 cm.
The technique involves the installation of the floor laying the lag on the raft foundation without bias. On the joists of the floor was packed edged boards indented in 7 mm in order to use as bath water can easily pass through the gap, even if the wood swells.
Before you make the floor in the bath on stilts, care must be taken underground. In this part of the structure is poured concrete floor sloping towards the drainage system, flowing from top to water does not stagnate and mold from growing, and to avoid the musty odor. For the purpose of cleaning and disinfection, the floor must be periodically shed pressure of running water and process antiseptic.
The floors in the bath on the pile foundation can have a concrete base.
The preliminary stage before pouring the concrete work includes the following:
- Installation of communications - water and sanitation.
- Laying trapika water drainage so that after finishing grating located in the most low-floor interval.
- Coating sandy cushion, the thickness of which will vary depending on the type of the insulation material. Usually, expanded clay with insulation gravel layer is not more than 4 cm.
- Laying in each of the sections of the foundation waterproofing layer. Alternatively, the roofing material is acceptable, but it is best to use a vapor-permeable film.
- Mounting the insulation material.
If the insulation of floors in the bath concrete block was selected, it is desirable that it was composed of granules of different factions. In addition, before laying it should ensure that concrete block was completely dry, because it has the ability to quickly absorb and give moisture very slowly.
Before supporting laid boards on the cranial bars, they, as well as all the wooden elements should be treated with preservatives to prevent the emergence of bacteria and other pests. Further, between the carcass layers stacked insulation boards.
The thickness of the insulation layer will be different, for example if applied mineral or basalt wool, the fiber will reach 25 cm. In case of using the foam for the insulation layer sufficiently to 15 cm, especially if the bath has no socket but its use is assumed in the winter.
If the height of the stacked lag is not enough to produce a laying of insulation layer of the desired height on the beam additionally packed bars. Thus one layer of insulation disposed between the beams on the vapor barrier material and the second layer is placed in between the bars. Next, the entire surface of the floor veiled another layer of waterproofing, and already over the bars makes installation of the boardwalk.
Good lining material for the floor in the bath decor is a ceramic or glazed floor tiles. Under it, as a rule, do not put the whole board, but prefer chipboard, plywood and other materials, which are attached to the rails in the floor.
On top of this flooring can be safely stacked ceramic tiles under the standard scheme. In addition, the organization may be even "warm floor" of different types - electrical, infrared or water.
screw piles installation principles
To installation of screw piles for the foundation was made possible correctly, you should adhere to a set of basic rules.
Pay attention to the following points:
- Between loose piles distance should not exceed 3 meters, or the floor of the bath will start to sag due to excessive load.
- If the distance between adjacent joists exceed 3 meters in the central part of each beam need to install additional support to walking the floors are not springs.
- Since the pile-foundation screw requires less frequent placement of poles, than, say, the tape, it is desirable to produce a harness channel bar of the central row of piles.
- If you want to make below 15 cm than the other for the binding used wooden beams, height of the central piles.
- Where the structure is adjacent to the fifth wall should be installed, two additional support.
The standard height for screw piles log bath is 6 m. Installation of supports should pay attention to the fact that the wastes remain as small as possible.
Note that if you comply with all building codes and supports installation technology, sauna on the pile foundation can stay for at least half a century, if not longer.
Advantages and disadvantages of the foundation on screw piles
One of the major drawbacks of the foundation pile-screw may be mentioned the fact that for the manufacture of piles are often used rather low quality materials. However, if the procurement of components proven to apply to construction companies, you can be sure that you get a good quality product. See also: "How to make the foundation of his own hands for a bath - belt structure in practice."
Another difficulty associated with this type of foundation can be considered the installation of the vapor barrier layer of insulation and a boardwalk to the floor.
But the undoubted advantages of a screw-pile type of foundation are:
- availability of consumables for the average consumer with a low income;
- Independence of work on the climate or weather conditions;
- the possibility of organizing the foundation of their own;
- a small amount of time required to build the foundation;
- obtaining a solid foundation due to the sealing layer of soil around the pile;
- possible to repair the supports;
- absolute verticality foundation elements, which is achieved by using hardware;
- providing ventilation underground, protecting it from decay.
floor apparatus in the bath for screw piles
Sex in the bath on screw piles must have a good thermal protection, under construction since a lot of free space. If the room will be used in winter in cold climates, it is recommended to further protect the underground space by closing its cap on the perimeter. This enclosing structures made several air holes that allow to effectively ventilate the underground, and at the same time provide additional thermal protection.
The floors in the bath on stilts - Plans and Projects
The greatest number of discussions causes the floor structure in a bath of the carcass, as there exists a danger to make a structure in which the lower crown is too intensively wetted. As a result of constant exposure to moisture wood can begin to break down prematurely and the whole structure will last considerably less than her allotted time. Therefore, further placed scheme optimal positioning of all the necessary elements in a beautiful floors.
The lower crown installed floor joists section 100x150 mm.
Under lags sewn skull board to become a pillar of thermal insulation layer.
Next, the plate heater placed in two layers, one - 100 mm, and the second - 50 mm. Flooring vrazbezhku performed so that the joints of the lower layer do not coincide with the upper joints.
The next step is carried out manufacturing of crates under the slab subfloor.
Above batten laid flooring of thick polyethylene film - a waterproofing layer which protects located below wooden structures from falling on them water.
Installed on the waterproofing durable cement particle boards (DSP), not less than 12 mm thick. Along the perimeter runs skirting of the same material.
In the resulting space is expanded metal mesh to said wire is not less than 10 mm. After that is done pouring concrete screed 10-12 mm thick.
In this structure, not specified important thing - there is no drain plug for the organization of the flow of water and steam pomyvochnaya. Plan its location can be seen in the diagram below.
There is also listed a finishing layer for finishing concrete screed flooring in a bath - is usually stoneware tiles. Also here you can see that in the scheme of the steam room floor or washing made with a bias. In order to organize such an angle, concrete screed poured on beacons made of wood at a certain angle from the wall to the drain.
Another embodiment, which uses insulation of mineral wool together with the extruded polystyrene foam (EPG) is shown in the following scheme.
A little more complexity; design with heavy wooden flooring and insulated concrete screed.
A good option for creating a thermal barrier along the perimeter - the manufacture of the cap. With its creation, it is important to bear in mind that the ground next to the bath will be moving and hard compounds cladding with bath should not have.
How to make the floor in the bath on stilts with their hands: Instructions
First, make sure that the earth dug up all the trenches for the laying of sewage pipes and water channels, if any, are planned.
Then sexual lags below inciting boards sub-floor.
The next step is to ensure vetrovlagozaschity for insulation. This role is performed by a special membrane vapor permeability, which allows heat shielding interlayer effectively evaporate moisture from the surface of the street. Qualitative teplobarer create a mineral wool 150 mm thick.
Next, the entire surface of the floor closes the dense waterproofing with a small overlap on the wall.
Finished with a seal section, on top of it set the board subfloor.
On the subfloor or crate stacked DSP boards.
Top plate closed hydroprotective film, which is laid on top of a crate for pouring concrete screed.
floor screed is performed on the beacons. They can be made of wood or metal profiles, as in the photo above. On top of the concrete is laid ceramic tile or wood floor settling. If you plan to make heavy flooring boards, the space between the wood flooring and concrete screed is recommended to arrange the ventilation duct.
This pipe will provide a good air circulation and not only protect wood floors from premature rotting, but also allow for longer and more comfortably located in the steam due to the constant influx of fresh air. If necessary, outside or inside on the pipe control valve, lid or gate valve can be installed. For more information about the organization of ventilation in the bath here.
Bath on stilts with their hands
From time to time, builders are faced with the problem of soil instability. This may result in that the displacement of the upper layers would entail partial or complete destruction of any construction. To this did not happen, you need to think in advance of foundations. In this article, we'll show you how to construct a room on stilts with their hands.
Put simply, the pile foundation is a certain number of columns that are recessed to a depth of soil freezing. Its base they abut reliable layer which is the basis. Such a device makes it possible to build a full-fledged facilities, even in areas of permafrost.
All kinds of foundation on piles can be divided into four basic types.
- On screw piles. This option is becoming increasingly popular. Piles are made of metal tubes, the ends of which are special drills. For their installation does not require additional equipment. With the help leverage support simply screwed into the soil to the desired depth to the stable layer. Drill itself also performs the function of support, thanks to the blade area.
- On precast piles. This type of pile is finished reinforced concrete, metal or wooden construction which generally has a pointed end. With the help of special industrial hammers or vibrators pillars sink to the desired depth.
- On stilts shells. In this case the mounting process starts with driving into the ground a metal tube of a large diameter (0.8-1.6 m, in some cases it may be more). In some cases the stabilizer itself can serve as primer or as it is removed from the tube, and is installed in the middle reinforcing mesh and concrete poured solution.
- Printed on stilts. With the help of special equipment produced crimp the soil to the desired depth. Then lowered into the hole a metal frame, and everything is filled with concrete.
- On drilling piles. Drill hole made in the soil. The base is expanded to form "heel." Thereafter stacked grid of reinforcement and poured concrete mortar.
Note! Piles may be drooping - in this case, the surface thereof is formed in such a way that good adhesion with the ground. A well-pile or support column - in this case before the pile is immersed sawmills, which serve to provide stability.
Advantages of pile foundation
If we compare the foundations on stilts with a conventional tape option, there are several major advantages.
- Lower cost of the entire project.
- The high speed of installation.
- Application on difficult terrain.
- Some types of piles can be installed even in the winter.
- Eliminating the need for extensive work on the soil sample.
- Not being to the ground heave.
- The possibility of free load distribution by adjusting the amount of piles.
- There is no need of insulation from moisture.
- Ease of maintenance.
- If you are using precast or screw piles, you can immediately start the construction of the walls.
- Ease of supply of various communications.
Note! Screw metal piles exposed to the corrosive action on the part of the groundwater. It is important to treat them before installing a special compound which will eliminate oxidation.
If you have sufficient funds, then before you open the way to the production of any of the above options. If everything will be erected on its own, without the use of additional equipment, then there will be two Best - a screw or drill foundation piles.
In order to produce a base for screw piles, the following is necessary:
- Buy the desired number of piles. Can come from the condition of their mounting with a distance of 1.2 m. This may vary depending on the weight of the structure.
- We produce cleaning and marking territory on which construction will be carried out.
- It is planned to place piles location.
- Dig a pit depth of 30 to 50 cm.
- They are inserted into the pile. In a special hole on the top of the pile set lever.
- Immerse to the required level. To do this, simply cranking pile. Generally, the degree of burial depth is 1.5 m. All will depend on the particular soil.
- Keep track of the vertical plane. To make this easier to do, you can take one or two levels with magnetic base and attach it to a metal pipe, the future pile.
- After the support will be in the desired position, it is necessary to align their height. To do this, choose one of them and using a tape measure and chalk mark and shortened. Using a wooden beam and the level or the level of a rule, the transfer of the label height on the remaining piles and crop them to size.
- At the upper end is welded a small playground. It is necessary to make it easier to secure the future timber. Size may be a square, for example, 200 × 200 mm.
Note! Screw piles can be made independently. This is no big deal if you have the skills to work with welding machine. It needs a metal pipe. Its diameter should be greater than 80 mm. Everything will depend on what kind of soil in your area. With the help of the Bulgarians from the bottom of the pipe to be cut portion so as to obtain four triangles. Then they are bent, to get a cone, and boil, then stitches are stripped grinder. For blades can use special blanks or cut from metal circle diameter of 6-8 mm. It is made a hole diameter equal to the diameter of the pipe. Next, cut through from one side edge radius and straighten so that they are not in one plane. Circumference is installed on a pipe and scald.
If you decide that your option will be the best decision of bored piles, then the sequence of actions is as follows:
- Using a hand drill, you can make holes for the future of the pile. Typically the diameter of such tool may be 30 cm. To penetrate be a distance that is below the level of the ground freezing at least 50 cm.
- Further, by using an additional tool necessary to slightly increase the hole bottom.
- Using sheets of roofing material, Bikrost or polyethylene film must envelop the borehole wall. This is important so that future support is not exposed to ground heave.
- The hole descends armature along the entire length, its diameter can be 8-12 mm.
- Preparing concrete mortar. For it is better to use cement brand M350 and above.
- Concrete is poured into the wells. It should then be well compacted using a vibrator to form a monolithic structure.
- To pile rose, it is necessary to make the formwork. For this purpose, the tube of appropriate diameter may be used, which need to be recessed slightly into the ground.
Note! In some cases, all piles are combined with each other not with a wooden base, and concrete. For this purpose, between the piles sees a small trench is a base of sand or gravel, which is well compacted. Thereafter, exposed timbering, and poured the foundation tape not flush. The advantage of this solution is that it definitely simplifies the construction of the walls of brick.
Once the foundation was laid, and in the case of concrete piles to withstand the required period, you are ready to further work.
- To eliminate the need to constantly clean out the weeds and other plants out of the bath, it is possible to make a mound of sand. Actually implement this as follows: the whole area of stacked sheets of roofing material overlap from about 10 cm top layer of sand is filled in the seal is made of 15-20 cm With the rammer... At the end of the process can shed water.
- We set the foundation for the walls - raft foundation. For him, we need logs the size of 15 × 15 cm, if the total weight of the building will be significant, then do not take the timber and take the 20 × 20 cm. The size corresponds to the length of all walls and Perestenko.
- If our foundation is made of concrete piles, then under the wood necessary to lay waterproofing. For this purpose, suitable dense construction film Bikrost or roofing material.
- First log simply stacked to make the joints, as well as to adjust the final size.
- In order to connect them to each other, it is necessary to perform a recess on the end face, whose depth is equal to half the timber width and the width of the joint will correspond to the width of the logs, which will be stacked.
- Spun one metal screws in the outer corners and check diagonally displace to reach the same values as necessary.
- After fitting strengthening by a second screw. On the inner corner better consolidate the metal corner.
- If our piles are made of metal, then it is necessary to strengthen the raft foundation to the sites that have been welded onto. Initially, drilled holes and twist the bottom screws. The concrete piles attachment is made by means of anchor bolts.
Note! At this point you can take care of the supply of communications, as well as the draining of water from the washing. It is possible to lay the pipes and bring them to the site of the future location of the pits. There is another option: to concrete small area directly beneath the wash, making a small slope. Thus water draining through the ladder, it will fall on the bottom and flow into the hole.
On stilts can erect buildings of any complexity. You can make a bath of the log, but a simpler option would be framed wall. To get down to business, we need Edged board with dimensions 150 × 50 mm or 150 × 100 mm, it will all depend on what kind of foundation you choose.
- We determine the height of our future baths, as well as those which will have a roof. If it is a pent, then the beam on the one hand, you can do more in length. If you have planned roof - all made of the same length.
- For angular bearings can be used timber 150 × 150 × 150 mm or 200 mm. It is better to fix the method of their thorns, and not just the corners. To this is a small projection at the end (at least 50 × 50 × 50 mm), and inserted into the corresponding hole. You can then install the two metal brackets. That they remain in an upright position, mounted a temporary boom.
- With the step of 60 cm mounted Edged board, as discussed above. If our support are at a distance of 1.2 m, each second vertical post will fall to the pile, which will ensure a high stability. Boards attached with corners to the raft foundation. Between them are set podkosiny.
- Install the upper rail, which will connect all our beams together.
- You can begin the installation of the floor. To do this, with metal corners anchoring lugs. They can be located between the logs raft foundation, and on top of them. On the lower face of the lag fills edged boards. Thus, we obtain a recess, which can be put waterproofing, insulation, and then sew from the top board, sheets of plywood or OSB.
- Mount the ceiling beams and collect truss system of the roof for our future. Making the crate under the kind of material for the flooring, which is incorporated in our project.
- As the roof deck can be used that will afford you. Most of these facilities is covered with metal or floorings.
- On the outer side walls can be sewn waterproof OSB, paneling or siding. Next stacked film of waterproofing, insulation (which can be mineral wool, sawdust or polystyrene), a vapor barrier - foil.
- The ceiling can be hemmed to the beams, which were laid before. Next, the attic side of the vapor barrier foil laid, and as insulation apply mineral wool. Well, if the whole structure is covered with an additional top film that wool does not scatter.
- Interior decoration is made with a wooden lining.
- For large bath is best to use a brick oven. If the room is small, the electric version will suffice.
Note! If the oven is quite massive, it would be good to take care of that in the place of its location was also a separate pile. It will be a good foundation for the furnace.
If you choose this method is the construction of its bath, be sure that your building a highly reliable, regardless of what kind of soils predominate in your area.
This form describes the construction of a bath on screw piles:
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