- 1 Planting blueberry garden: when and how. Site preparation for planting a garden blueberry and care of plants after planting
- 2 Features planting and care of subtleties blueberry garden at the cottage
- 3 Planting, care and cultivation of garden blueberry
Planting blueberry garden: when and how. Site preparation for planting a garden blueberry and care of plants after planting
Blueberries belongs to the family Ericaceae crops. For the first time this berry began to grow in the gardens in the XII century. Homeland of this culture is difficult to define: the first mention of dishes blueberries found in the chronicles of Kievan Rus, berry picking was also carried out in the marshes of England and Scotland.
Blueberry Garden - cultural subspecies of wild plants. Blueberry bushes garden give a greater yield than wild culture, its berries - sweeter and larger. However, the taste depends on the blueberry varieties.
There are more than 75 varieties of the berry bush. Some cold-resistant plants and stunted, they tied a small amount of berries, while others - tall and high-yielding. Terms planting blueberry garden for different grades do not differ from each other.
Rules blueberry planting garden
Blueberries - Marsh plant, so she likes acidic and moist soil. As with all plants of the heather family, garden blueberries bad taking root in the new location. If you provide a good environment for the growth of the culture, you'll get the first crop of berries in three years after planting blueberries in the open ground.
To blueberries is well established, you need to pick up for her the proper composition of the soil. The soil must be acidic or weakly acidic, with a level of PH of 4 to 6.
To further increase blueberries need a large area, so for each bush dig planting hole depth of 40 cm and a width of 80 cm. Its garden fill vermiculite or perlite one-third to provide water drainage. Despite the fact that blueberries loves frequent watering, stagnant water at its roots rot.
The composition of the soil for planting blueberries in the open ground
Blueberries growing in the wild is in the peat, so planting hole can only fill in the peat, but it is better to prepare a soil mixture. The soil for planting blueberry garden should be:
• from peat;
• humus spruce lapnika;
• soil from under the pine trees.
Volume peat soil mixture should be at least 150 liters, considering the volume of the landing pit. The percentage of peat in soil mix - 50%.
Scheme blueberry landing garden
Pine sawdust provide a soil mixture of phosphorus and potassium - trace elements necessary for the best rooting seedlings. If you fill the planting hole only peat, after planting the garden blueberries spill soil stimulator rooting. You can use the branded drugs «Radifarm9raquo ;.
This stimulator rooting through cell algae, which come in symbiosis with plant roots to absorb nutrients from the soil and give them the root system.
The soil of coniferous forest is added to the soil mixture to loosen it, as well as to facilitate further works for garden blueberry care:
• Spreading fertilizer.
The soil of the pine forest will provide air access to the roots of garden blueberry and thus accelerate its rooting seedlings.
Due to the frequent watering of the soil acidity over time is reduced, so the planting hole before planting the garden blueberries add so-called "Anti-podkisliteli9raquo; the soil of long-term action.
When preparing a place for planting a garden blueberry use drugs on the basis of sulfur. Typically such means is a yellow powder, but there colorless fertilizer. The powder does not need to be dissolved in water. The drug is simply buried in the soil to a depth of 15 - 20 cm.
The amount of acidulant is calculated according to its application instructions. When watering the sulfur will dissolve in the water and increase soil acidity.
Adding such fertilizer under a bush blueberries are held twice a year: in the spring, after the threat of spring frost has passed, and in September, prior to the preparation plant for the winter.
The filled planting hole well shed warm water to heat the soil to a temperature of + 18 ° C. Instead of plain water, you can use a solution of a growth stimulant of the root system for rapid establishment of seedlings.
How to plant blueberries garden in open ground
Like all culture heather garden blueberries are very poorly tolerate transplanting in the open ground, so the seedlings for planting only fit in the garden area with closed root system. blueberry roots should occupy the entire volume of the pot.
Seedling best to transplant in the prepared pit method of handling. Pot plant put inside the landing pit gently tilted container while the plant is removed from the pot.
The root system of seedlings on the perimeter of an earthen clod make four vertical grooves. This will start the process of plant defense response and accelerate the growth of the root system. Then seedling garden blueberry rolled over into a prepared soil mix. The bush is filled with dry peat zaglubit seedling 10 cm.
After planting, the soil once again well shed warm water. The volume of water for each plant was 5 liters. The water can be dissolved potassium permanganate or biological fungicide for soil disinfection. A solution of potassium permanganate to be saturated magenta color.
planting time garden blueberries
Planting blueberries twice a year can be carried out: in the middle of May, when the threat of spring frost has passed, and in early September, has not yet come autumn frosts. Fall planting is acceptable, not all fruit crops, but the growth of the root system of blueberry is very fast, especially if you add in the soil root growth stimulator. Therefore, plants have time to take root before the frost.
Planted blueberry bush
Care after planting blueberries
Blueberries can withstand temperatures up to -15 ° C, so a young seedling tree trunks fix several pegs which pull agrovoloknom to shield plant for the winter.
To avoid stagnation of water, the young bushes mulching and watering is carried out once a week. In can be used as mulch grass clippings, pebbles or coniferous lapnikom. In the spring the soil is made overrotten cow dung and magnesium-containing fertilizer.
Blueberries need of cross-pollination for the formation of ovaries, so you need to plant at the site at least two bushes that culture, preferably of different varieties. Blueberry berries ripen unevenly, so the harvest process is extended in time.
Formation of the ovaries begins in late May. During this period, blueberries are covered with a grid of birds, and in the soil making potash and magnesium-containing fertilizers. Flowering varieties of blueberry occurs approximately at the same time, sometimes with a difference of five days.
The harvest from one bush, usually lasts a month, time of maturation depends on the variety of garden blueberries. Planting different varieties ripening will allow to collect berries harvest from mid-July to late September.
Blueberry varieties of fruit ripening periods are:
The advantage of the garden blueberries is that this culture is practically not subject to viral and fungal diseases, therefore, only one prophylactic treatment of a biological fungicide in late May.
Bush blueberry preserves the intensity of fruiting for 30 years, but then yields fall.
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Features planting and care of subtleties blueberry garden at the cottage
Millions of gardeners regularly add to their collection of fine shrubs. Therefore blueberry garden, planting and care which requires special knowledge, is worthy to become an exclusive exhibit of the garden. To do this, you need to successfully choose the grade and prepare the ground. In the period of intensive growth is important to fertilize the soil, and cut branches. Do not unimportant role played by cultural reproduction procedure. All these details should be considered.
In the natural environment vodopyanku (one of the names of blueberry) often can be found in marshy ground and on the tundra. Next to it are often settle dopey Labrador tea and blueberries. A characteristic feature of these areas is sufficiently moisten the earth, but in the summer it must be warmed by the sun. The most common regions, where growing blueberries in Russia are:
- Far East;
Since this northern berries are in great demand, its plantation in the wild thinning. In this regard, the residents of Arkhangelsk, Moscow, Vologda and Leningrad regions, as well as in the Republic of Komi and Karelia tend to grow durnihu in their backyards. Yet not all varieties are suitable for some regions. Planting blueberries in the suburbs and care it has specific features.
On each of the beds is necessary to put two or more varieties. Then it is possible to achieve the highest rates of productivity.
The choice of varieties depending on the region
The main condition for the prosperity of the plant is the successful overwintering. Furthermore, vodopyanki grade should be resistant to diseases, and also possible to drought. When choosing important to consider the period of ripening berries (early or middle). This will allow the harvest as early as possible (July, August). Therefore, the following varieties of blueberry suitable for suburbs:
- Blue Ray.
Favorable time for planting in the country near Moscow considered spring. What the kidneys do not have time to swell in the end promotes seedling adaptation to the new environment. It was during this season of planting and caring for blueberry garden will be the most optimal. Of course, the landing can be carried out and fall. However, it should be done in the first half of October (one month before the beginning of the frost), so that the plant is not frozen.
Newly planted bush must be protected from freezing. It is better to gently wrap it with burlap at lower temperatures. News for autumn landings.
Although berry and grows in the tundra, a place for it is to choose a sunny and open. Under trees or bushes near the high - not the best option for growing blueberries. As a result, the fruit is crushed, the taste will become more acidic, and the yield will fall by 3 times.
The site should not choose a very deep groundwater table - about half a meter. So, the land will be relatively moist. The soil should be acidic. For this we need to measure pH. The norm is between 3.5 and 5.5. Neutral earth should be acidified to a bush could develop.
The use as an oxidizing agent colloidal sulfur (60 g), phosphoric or citric acid. Sometimes using ammonium sulphate. The substrate is filled with 6 months prior to planting and compacted.
Moreover, it is important to choose areas that are protected from the wind. Shelter will either fence or hedge of ornamental plants. Land for planting shrubs how to loosen, saturate it with oxygen. Then it is important to distribute the seedlings of blueberry garden in the garden, to ensure their rapid growth and reproduction. Gardeners recommend that adhere to the following:
- The distance between the bushes - 75 or 130 cm.
- Distance beds from each other of 2-3 m. Free ground can be covered with sawdust.
- Well depth of 50 cm. It should be done in the form of a square with sides of 60 cm.
For clay soil necessarily need drainage. The bushes are planted on the ridges of the prepared substrate. It is possible to dig trenches (width - 1.2 meters, depth - 0.80 m) and the film lay them: completely or only wall. If the material is settled to the bottom, then half a meter distance makes an incision to drain. This system provides the upper layer of soil moisture. Also, when grown doves in the country should set up her natural habitat. Watering in the morning and evening will bring an iota bog bush to their homeland. But in this case you need to show balance, so that moisture does not stagnate.
The container with the seedling before planting place for 15-30 minutes in water to soften the ground. This will help remove the plant without damaging the root system.
Native of marshy tundra not like ordinary soil in the garden or in the garden suburbs. However, it is seamlessly taking root in the ground exhausted and does not require organic fertilizer, compost or humus. Meanwhile, growers still have to make the soil for blueberries with their hands, which is different from the usual structure of a garden.
At the bottom of the pit to be formed to lay drainage from pine wood chips or twigs. Then, preparing the substrate consisting of the following:
- a mixture of sphagnum (moss, wood, and plant residues) and peat;
- needles humus;
- forest land.
Half of this planting material falls on peat mixture. All other components are added in equal quantity and mix. The substrate is filled into the trench and filled with a little water. The bush is put into the ground, pre-straightening roots. The root collar should sit in the ground 6-10 cm.
Buy seedlings should those who have reached the age of two or three years.
At the end of the soil around the bush lightly tamped and watered. You should definitely put mulch around the trunk of the pine sawdust. Bed height of about 10 cm. Aisles also poured grass. This prevents overheating and drying plants as mulch does not allow moisture to evaporate. It is desirable to treat stems and crown fungicidal agents as prophylaxis against pests (fungi and bacteria).
The first time the seedlings need regular watering and weeding to keep the crust was formed. The reason for this is the superficial root system.
An important place in the care always takes cropping. It is necessary for a stable and a large crop. It should start in the 5th year after planting, and conduct every spring. You must cut off the branches that:
- thickened bushes (they are near the root of the neck);
- reached 6 years of age;
- cold winter (most often shoots).
Of course, it is important to handle the spring bush fungicides (against fungi and diseases) and insecticides (insect). During this period, gardeners fertilize the soil, using acidic fertilizers such as:
- potassium sulfate;
- ammonium sulfate acid salt.
These agents must be diluted with water. In 10 liters of liquid has to 50-100 g of a fertilizer. However it is better to get acquainted with the instructions for each of them.
Before buying plants should be inspected seedling. Branches and bark should be no damage, and the roots - are completely closed (in a package or container).
Many varieties of blueberries are hardy, but experts advise to carry out proper care of the culture in autumn, providing a worthy preparation for winter. Once we passed the first frost:
- tilt shoots to the ground;
- fix branch staples or wire;
- agrovoloknom wrap or burlap.
It is forbidden to use plastic materials for shelters. humid microclimate under cover is created when the temperature rises. Preyut shoots and eventually die.
Summer blueberries requires intensive irrigation system. For 7 days in a bush should consume 20-30 liters of water, depending on the air temperature. It is extremely important to monitor soil moisture throughout July and August, because in these months laid embryonic shoots in the next year. Deficiency of moisture reduces the yield.
Thousands of gardeners growing practice of blueberry seeds at home, but it's a long process. First, you need to select perespevshie fruit rot and without defects. It is desirable that they were both larger than possible. Then act on such algorithm:
- dried and stored at 0 + 5 ° C;
- are planted in the spring of the thawed soil (warm) to a depth of 1.5 cm;
- are covered with mulch - leaves, sawdust and peat;
- regularly watered and vspushivayut beds.
Fertilizing begin from the 2nd year. When the shrub reaches the age of three, it should be transplanted to a permanent place.
In addition to all of blueberry cuttings reproduction is carried out, but it needs to look specially prepared video. This is a more rapid and reliable method. Harvested branches (length 8-15 cm) with shoots follows immediately after the reset bush leaves. Spring cut them to the kidney awakening. Slice to do smooth, the first bud from the tip is at a distance of 2 cm.
Before planting cuttings stored in the refrigerator for 30 days (t = 0 + 5 ° C). This will speed up the development process. At 90 ° they are planted in the soil down oblique cut made immediately under the kidney. It is important not to forget to sprinkle the edge of powdered rooting. Such preparation can be done in a greenhouse.
Must be regularly watered the cuttings. It is possible to construct a canopy of a film, covered spunbond, to create high humidity. After 2 months, remove the tent, and transplanted the cuttings.
With such an arsenal of knowledge on planting and caring for blueberry garden can get a good harvest and to please his family in such an exquisite treat.
Planting, care and cultivation of garden blueberry
Recommendations for growing blueberry garden
Blueberries loves air- and water-permeable soil - sand, peat, peat-sand mixture - light (not clay), but be sure to acidic soil. soil pH of 4.3 - 5.0 but not more than 5.5 units. Because blueberries grow naturally in peatlands.
Blueberries grow on high and well lighted areas. Blueberry seedlings should be planted in zatishnoe from cold winds place. Blueberries grow well only in the sun, so choose plants for a sunny place. At such places blueberry berries are sweeter and healthier bush.
Blueberry root system is located at a depth of 30 centimeters. Therefore, it must be ensured that the soil was constantly wet. At the same time we can not allow a long stagnant water, because the lack of oxygen in the soil can lead to death of plants. So do not overdo it with watering and blueberries did not land where water stagnates. The level of ground water should be at a depth of 60-80 centimeters. On heavy clay soils and a high location to the water table is better to plant blueberries on a hill or make drainage.
Before planting the seedlings in containers:
Option №1: immersed in a container with water until full saturation of the rootball moisture.
Variant № 2: root systems of the seedlings with soil are cut into four pieces and vertically straighten into a horizontal position for boarding.
Before planting blueberry roots must be carefully spread by releasing from the container in which grew a bush of blueberries!
When planting blueberry purchased and grown in the open field, blueberries land planted with a lump in which it is grown, as root system was without prejudice to its development.
For planting is necessary to dig a pit depth of 30-40 cm, diameter 0.6-0.8 m, fill the pit substrate which includes on one half (50%) of the excavated earth, 40-50% of the litter with litter needles of pine wood or upland non-deoxidized peat (it is lighter moor - almost red color) and add 5-10% pine bark. It is possible to completely fill the hole peat. Peat can be used instead of ground coniferous wood (only layer decomposed). Needles, moss and cones - can not be added into the pit. If in the woods with a shovel you get to the sand, the soil in this area should not be taken for planting blueberries.
Filling hole substrate should be left to the edge of the hole 5-8 centimeters. Bush land in the center of the pit. The remaining wells to 5-8 centimeters edges must fill mulch (zamulchirovat) with a bulk of 10-15 cm above the ground surface.
1-3 summer blueberries planted seedlings with a well-developed root system is at any time of the growing period, with the proviso that grew blueberries in the container or in the open ground. The distance between the bushes should be 1.0-1.5 meter.
The surface of the soil around the bush must zamulchirovat 8-10 cm layer of pine sawdust. Mulching blueberries can be straw, rotted leaves, pine needles, peat, leaves, shredded bark, wood chips, straw, hay. But best of all - sawdust of coniferous trees as sawdust compacted slower and longer decay.
The optimum planting period blueberry:
- bare-root (but currently these seedlings typically not implemented) - before bud break in the spring or autumn after vegetation closure;
- with closed root system (in containers and cut open ground unit - usually implement blueberry plants with closed root system), - the whole vegetation period.
Requirements for planting seedlings:
- free plants from the container;
- straighten the roots in the hand (for this - plants in containers immersed in a container with water until full saturation of the rootball with moisture or make a vertical cross-section of the root system with the land)
- seedlings grown in the open field planted with a lump of land, with which you purchased it;
- root neck bury the soil to 3 cm;
- the soil around the seedling compacted and plentifully water (including top of the mulch).
- The distance between rows - 2,5 - 3,5 meters. The distance between the plants: for early maturing varieties - 1.0 m; middle-to - 1.3 m; late-to - 1.5 m.
Mulching blueberries contributes to:
- longer stay moisture in the ground,
- protect the soil from the sharp changes in day and night temperatures: day mulch prevents soil overheating and night does not allow it to cool quickly.
- reduce the number of weeds,
- later blossom buds in spring and slowly peel off the leaves in the fall. This helps move the blueberries well temperature fluctuations.
- rapid regrowth and uniform ripening of shoots.
- Protection of the root system in winter.
- the healthy development of a blueberry bush, as the causative fungus, wintering on fallen leaves die, are not hitting the ground due to the layer of chips (mulch).
- eating blueberry seedlings since dec chips (mulch) are food for plants.
In the early years of Blueberry bushes should be protected from severe frosts; spring cold snaps blueberries is not afraid. For frost protection blueberries can tie (hide) lapnikom spruce, hide spunbond, lutrasilom or burlap, but can not use a polyethylene film.
Blueberry bush in one place can grow and bear fruit every year to 50-100 years, giving the 7-10 kg of berries.
Attention! Blueberries need no organic fertilizer (manure, humus chicken manure, compost, etc.). Needed only mineral fertilizers:
For the development of plants requires 50-60 grams superphosphate, 15-35 g of magnesium and 2.1 gram of a mixture of microelements on a bush.
Blueberries like no berry crops, needs nitrogen. With a lack of nitrogen can observe yellowing of leaves, termination of shoot growth, reducing the size of the berries.
Nitrogen is introduced in three stages: 40% - during bud break, 35% - in early May, and 25% - in early June.
Phosphorus is introduced in the form of superphosphate (rate of 50-60 g per plant) and double superphosphate (rate of 25-30 g per plant) with embedded to a depth of 5-10 cm.
For a good crop of blueberries require potassium. Potassium chloride is toxic for blueberry plants, so entered potassium sulfate 30-45 grams per plant.
Best form fertilizer for fertilizing: ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate and superphosphate.
When used as a mulch fresh sawdust dose of nitrogen fertilizer increase 2 times, as the decomposing sawdust absorb nitrogen required for growth of blueberry bushes.
Of fertilizer is better to use a special fertilizer recommended for ericaceous plants.
Water used for irrigation should be acidic, ie have a pH of from 4 to 5, but more water above pH, it is recommended to acidify the water:
Vinegar in a concentration of 0.2-0.3%; citric acid or oxalic rate of 1 teaspoon to 10 liters of water or acetic 9% and malic acid in a ratio of 100 grams per 10 liters.
If the bush zamulchirovat coniferous sawdust, is watered bush acidic water is not necessary.
In August, when blueberries fruits and at the same time laying the flower buds of the future harvest, very important good watering. We should not forget about the constant moisture - should simply check mulch humidity and its drying of the interior of the carry watering.
Blueberries monilial burn affected shoots, stem cancer fomopsisnym wilting branches drying up of the tops of the shoots, botrytis. For the prevention of twice a year before the formation of the fruit after harvesting urozhayaobrabotayte (spraying) blueberry bushes fungicide.
In wet weather can appear gray mold. strong thinning bushes used for prevention.
Blueberry bushes for the winter to be processed copper-containing drugs:
When the amateur cultivation does not need to use chemicals against insect pests - insecticide as blueberry pests are very small, and their presence does not affect the growth of the bush and the quality of the future harvest. Harmful insects can be collected by hand.
To prevent disease: after defoliation - produce processing Bordeaux mixture; after spring pruning, the plants are sprayed with fungicides blueberry (topsin, euparen).
Pruning blueberries produced in early spring (March, beginning of April).
Old shoots should be constantly replaced with new ones, so rejuvenate blueberry should start with 3-4 years of age.
Cut blueberries in early spring until the buds blossomed, or in the autumn after leaf fall. From the bush need to cut out the sick and lying on the ground branch. Annual shoots should be not less than five. The first crop will not start earlier than in 6-7 years!
The young plants are removed damaged by frost shoots, as well as low-lying, creeping along the ground.
When the bush blueberry reaches 4 years of age to enhance its growth and ensure a constant crop thinning is necessary to make the bush.
Thinning accelerates the emergence of strong new shoots and ensures a regular crop.
For thinning blueberry bushes need to remove the old shoots (4-5 years), and to resolve the number of young. Young shoots with lots of flower buds should be cut by one-third.
In the first year after planting in the bush blueberry flowers removed - this is done in order to affect the proper development of plants.
Young blueberry bushes need to trim the stronger because it stimulates the growth of plants.
Maximum productivity is achieved blueberry bushes on 5-6-th year after planting in the garden.
In fruit-bearing bushes of blueberry crop oldest shoots, thinning crown. Patients also pruned, damaged, and highly branched shoots at the bottom of the bush. Blueberry bushes should not be too thick and should prevail shoots no older than 4 years.
a different type of pruning is carried out depending on the blueberry varieties:
- trimming long bends to the ground shoots of bushes fastest-growing varieties.
- have strongly kustyaschihsya grades circumcised, you need to carefully clean the base of the bush from all the small shoots.
- blueberry varieties with a elongated trim structure to be more stimulating their growth. You need to prune the shoots and branching bush inward, thereby releasing the crown from the bush thickening.
- the varieties of blueberry bush with dense structure is necessary to shorten too branched shoots.
- blueberry cultivars giving high yield, with a lot of shoots need to do thinning crown.
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